Bestselling Surveillance Camera Lenses in 2020
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ZOSI 720P HD 1280TVL Hybrid 4-in-1 TVI/CVI/AHD/960H CVBS Security Surveillance CCTV Camera High Resolution Weatherproof Cameras 65ft IR Distance, For HD-TVI, AHD, CVI, and CVBS/960H analog DVR(Black)
APEMAN Trail Camera 12MP 1080P HD Game&Hunting Camera with 130° Wide Angle Lens 120° Detection 42 Pcs 940nm Updated IR LEDs Night Version up to 20M/65FT Wildlife Camera with IP66 Spray Water Protected
Ansice- 3.6mm Lens Wide Angle Mini Case Security Camera 540TVL CMOS with Filter CCTV Hidden
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Antaivision 960P Wifi Wireless IP Bulb Hidden Camera with Fisheye Lens 360° Panoramic for Remote Home Security System,Motion Detection for iPhone/Android Phone/ iPad
Age and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Missed Population
HIV/AIDS is a worldwide epidemic. There are unique problems that have just been discovered and are only now being researched. This article examines this issue and analyzes data from the CDC's HIV Surveillance Report 2020.
HIV is a fatal disease that has affected the U.S. for decades. Despite efforts, there is no cure for this illness. Diagnosis of being HIV positive means more than just a shortened lifespan; family, reputation, employment and more are at-risk. There were more than 48,000 new cases of HIV infection in 2020 alone and the total number of people living with HIV in the U.S. is closing in on a million.
It is also a well-documented fact that the U.S. has an aging population. Age is a serious factor to consider when looking at healthcare as the body experiences complications from the effects of aging. Disease can be a much more severe problem as people age.
There is a large amount of funding that goes to HIV prevention and research. Much federal and state funds are expended on programs meant to reduce the impact HIV has on America. In addition, large amounts of private funding are expended as well. Research needs to be conducted so that everyone concerned can be assured that funding is going where it is needed most.
This study will examine the data from various age groups to determine what age group is most in need to target for interventions and prevention. Are older adults with HIV growing at a faster rate than younger adults? This question is important to answer in order to ensure that HIV programs are targeting the right demographics. It is also important to discover if research should be looking at measures to prevent deaths in certain age groups. The writer determined this research is vital in determining the future of HIV funding for new and existing programs.
The first reported case of HIV/AIDS occurred in 1981 and since has reached the status of worldwide epidemic (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2020). It is believed that there are over one million U.S. cases, with a quarter of those being people unaware they have the disease. The disease targets a person's immune system and there is no known vaccine or cure. The disease is currently spreading fastest among minority populations and the CDC states that the disease is affecting seven times as many African-Americans and three times as many Hispanics as it is whites (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2020). It is important to note that every age group has been affected by this often deadly illness; neither children nor the elderly are spared. There are two problems to be seen here. First, HIV infection affects individuals differently at different ages. Second, life extending drugs have created an aging population of HIV positive individuals and research is uncovering new issues relating to age and HIV.
D'amico et. al. examined the effects of HIV due to age and medical progress (2020). They found that the mortality rates were different for youth versus those who were infected later in life. Quantified results showed that young people have a lower probability of death during the earlier disease years than do older people. They concluded that age significantly changes the way HIV infection affects an individual. However, this study could have benefitted from a larger sample population that would have included ages below 24 and above age 49.
Aragones-Lopez, et. al. looked at the quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS in Cuba that received antiretroviral therapy (2020). This was a qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study of 1592 subjects age 18 and older. The study included findings from the Spanish version of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS)- HIV Health Survey Questionnaire. They found that quality of life scores were higher for those diagnosed with HIV before the age of 30 than for those diagnosed at age 30 years or older. The study could have been improved by including subjects under the age of 18 or by including individuals that were not receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Guaraldi, et. al. looked at age-related comorbidities among HIV infected individuals versus the general population (2020). The study included 2854 HIV infected patients at Modena University, Italy and compared them to a control group (n=8562) of age, sex and ethnicity matched subjects. They looked for non-infectious comorbidities (NICM) such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, bone fractures and renal failure. They concluded that HIV infected individuals had higher occurrences of NICMs and appeared about a decade earlier than the general population. This means that NICMs occurred at 40 in a HIV infected individual, that otherwise appeared at 50 in the general population.
Krisann, et. al. studied age and comorbidity with physical function in HIV infected adults and non-infected adults (2020). This was a cross-sectional study of 3227 HIV infected individuals and 3240 uninfected individuals using data from the Veteran's Aging Cohort study-8-site. They concluded that age-associated comorbidity affected physical function in individuals with HIV and may modify the effects of aging. The severity of impairment was dependent on the type of comorbidity. A 50 year old HIV infected subject with cardio pulmonary disease had the same functioning as a 68 year old uninfected individual with the same condition. This same research could be conducted in the form of a longitudinal study to advance knowledge in this area.
Siegel, et.al. conducted a study examining late middle-age and older adults with HIV and the strategies they use to explain physical symptoms (2020). This study looked at 100 HIV positive individuals between the ages of 50 years to 75 years. The ethnic distribution of the sample closely mirrored the actual population of adults 50 and over living in NYC at the time the study was conducted. They found that the participants adopted a variety of strategies to explain the cause of physical symptoms they were experiencing. Some even were influenced by their emotions to create explanations that were least likely to be threatening. This type of behavior can be especially dangerous for older adults who are more likely to experience comorbid conditions. This study could have benefitted from a larger sample size to strengthen the findings.
Anstee, et. al. performed a study to develop a matrix that would identify and prioritize research recommendations in HIV prevention (2020). They performed a count of risk groups and prevention areas found during a systematic search of databases found primarily in the U.S., U.K., Canada, Australia and New Zealand. They then exported this to a matrix to identify areas of concentration and gaps in the literature of prevention. They matrix revealed that older age groups were some of the least targeted groups and are one of the most emerging risk groups. This seems to be a very disturbing trend.
Sankar, et. al. conducted a review of social and behavioral literature to find out exactly what is known about older adults and HIV (2020). They performed this study because the fastest growing group of people with HIV is age 50 and older. They did a comprehensive search of several databases and identified 1549 articles which were then reviewed for results relating to social and behavioral aspects of living with HIV from age 50 and beyond. There were some fairly alarming results. They found that older minorities were less likely to have the economic resources to deal with HIV. They also found that older people with HIV are more likely to have other medical conditions, physical limitations and were more distant socially than younger people with the disease. Also, older adults are more likely to live alone and older men and minorities score significantly lower on social network scales. Furthermore, older people are more likely to exhibit symptoms of major depression than any other group.
Sankar, et. al. also found one alarming statistic to report; despite being the fastest growing group with HIV and engaging in similar rick behaviors as younger adults, the majority of older adults simply do not perceive themselves to be at risk (2020). Just as important is the finding that they are reluctant to use preventative measures even after a diagnosis is made. In addition, despite a high rate of sexual activity, older adults are about one-sixth as likely to use condoms as their younger counterparts. The study also found that primary doctors are not knowledgeable about HIV in people over the age of 50 and rarely discuss HIV with those patients. This age group has also expressed a desire for interventions targeting them, but in a study conducted of 13 Washington state agencies, Emlet, Gerkin and Orel found that few workers had experience or training with older adults (2020).
Jacobson conducted a study looking at interventions in an aging U.S. population (2020). She points out that even though there are articles dating back to the 1980's calling for research on aging populations the literature is really only just starting to build. She found some articles that proposed interventions and methods for education but states that very few have been evaluated. She concludes that evaluative research is needed and states that social workers are well trained and qualified to contribute to prevention research on older adults.
Jeffers and DiBartolo wrote an article about raising health care provider awareness about sexually transmitted diseases in patients over 50 (2020). She wrote this article in order to address the lack of interaction regarding STD's between doctors and older adults. She points out that this group is often neglected when it comes to STD risk assessment, screening and education, including HIV. She states that the CDC has reported that older adults will soon outnumber younger adults due to increased lifespan and lower birth rates and that they are exhibiting an increased rate of sexual activity. However, she finds that many doctors either do not think their patients are sexually active or are afraid to embarrass them. They may also place sexual concerns in a place of low priority compared to a long list of age-related concerns. She concludes that health care providers must acknowledge the significant concerns that STD's and HIV pose in older adults. She recommends increasing provider, patient and public awareness of these concerns and creating targeted, age appropriate educational programs.
The articles have shown that there are special concerns that are involved when it comes to older adults and HIV. It is demonstrated that there is a lack of research in this area as well as a significant lack of educational or preventative measures that target the age demographic of 50 years and older. This research is being conducted to reaffirm the need for additional research and determine if funding should be redirected to target this demographic.
Data was gathered from the Centers for Disease Control website and manually entered into the IBM SPSS Statistics Data Editor for analysis. The data collected was from the HIV Surveillance Report 2020. The report is one of the primary sources of data regarding diagnosed HIV infection and AIDS in the United States. This report only includes newly reported cases of HIV, and so it does not report new instances of HIV, since some may be new cases while others may have had HIV for some time before diagnosis took place. There also may be delays in reporting so actual number of cases diagnosed in a given year may be higher than the numbers presented.
This data relies upon the confidential names-based HIV reporting by the states. Although all states now have such a program in place, not all states had such reporting in place before 2020 so this data covers 46 states plus five U.S. dependent areas. The data was compiled by year and covers years 2020-2020. For the purposes of this research, all three years are being used.
The fact that this data is taken from each reporting state is important to this research for a couple of reasons. First is that it includes data on several ethnicities. The categories are American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, White and multiple races. This represents all the major ethnicities present in America. However, this data only represents U.S. data, so conclusions cannot be generalized to other countries.
Second, this data gathered is divided into several distinct age groups representing the complete spectrum of ages that are affected by this illness. The data is divided into groups by age: under age 13, 13 to 15, 15 to 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29, 30 to 34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, 50 to 54, 55 to 59 and 60 to 64. Advanced ages are group into a 65 and over category. This allows for the factor of age to be examined in detail and minimizes bias that may occur by making the age groupings too large.
This data will be analyzed by SPSS to find if there is a significant relationship between age and HIV.
The analysis of the HIV Surveillance Report was limited due to the nature of the data gathered. Data was grouped and had to be manually entered as individual cases, so only one variable was able to be analyzed using SPSS. However, three years of data was able to be entered allowing for comparison between years to accomplish the main goal of this research; to reaffirm previous research regarding age and HIV.
The data for 2020 consisted of 729,034 subjects. Males consisted of 75% of the group while females consisted of 25% of the group. Black/African American was the single largest ethnic grouping (313,601 individuals) followed by White (260,327 individuals). Hispanic/Latino was the third largest grouping (155,934 individuals) while Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander was the smallest group (493 individuals).
The data for 2020 consisted of 762,083 subjects, a 4.5% increase over 2020. There was no significant change in gender distribution, with 75% being male and 25% female. Black/African American remained the single largest ethnic grouping with 326,579 individuals and was the one of the fastest growing ethnic groups with HIV (4.1% increase). However, Hispanic/Latino was the fastest growing ethnic group with 4.3% increase over 2020.
The data for 2020 consisted of 788,965 subjects, an 3.5% increase over 2020, for a slower rate of transmission than the previous year. Again, there was no significant change in gender distribution, with a 75% male and 25% female distribution. Hispanic/Latino remained the fastest growing ethnic group (4.0% increase) followed by Black/African American (3.6% increase) and White (2.8% increase). Overall, the Hispanic/Latino grouping increased by 8.5% from 2020 to 2020, Black/African American by 7.9% and White by 6.0%.
A cross tabs was performed comparing variables of age of persons living with an HIV diagnosis for years ending 2020 and 2020. Age groups are under 13, 13 to 14, 15 to 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 29, 30 to 34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, 50 to 54, 55 to 59, 60 to 64 and over 65. The Chi square test (Table A2, Appendix A) was performed to see if there was a statistically significant relationship between years 2020 and 2020.
Ho: There is no statistically significant relationship between years 2020 and 2020.
Ha: There is a statistically significant relationship between years 2020 and 2020.
The Chi Square value (X2(132)=5800893.73, p=0.00, p lt;.05) was significant. The alternate hypothesis was accepted and the null was rejected indicating a significant relationship between years 2020 and 2020.
An examination ofthe distribution of ages of people living with an HIV/AIDS diagnosis was performed for years 2020, 2020 and 2020, respectively. The median of all three groups is 8, or age group 40 to 44. The means of all three groups were examined to see if there was a difference in age between the years. Then mean for year 2020 is 8.34. The mean for 2020 is 8.43. The mean for 2020 is 8.52. This is a strong indicator of an aging population with HIV/AIDS.
The totals from each age group were examined from years 2020 and 2020. The largest age group in 2020 is age 40 to 44 with 145,034. In 2020, that total was 134,486.representing a decrease of 7.3%. A slightly older group, age 45 to 49, was 140,434 in 2020. In 2020, that group was 157,131 representing an 11.8% increase. Similarly, age 50 to 54 rose from 101,201 in 2020 to 119,175 in 2020, a 17.7% increase. The single largest increase came from age group 60 to 64 (35% increase). Compared, the entire range of ages through age 39 showed a decrease of 1%. This shows that older adults represent the fastest growing population of people living with HIV.
This study confirms earlier studies and finds that older adults are the fastest growing population living with HIV/AIDS. Some of these are new diagnosis and some of this is due to an aging population of HIV sufferers. It is believed that this is an effect of life extending drugs. This conclusion is uncertain; there may be an alternative explanation, such as a less virulent strain of the HIV virus. However, regardless of the reason, this study does reaffirm the need for additional intervention and prevention programs that target older adults.
This study was limited by the lack of a complete dataset with individual cases to draw upon. This means that many types of analyses could not be performed. This study could benefit from tests of significance to reaffirm the findings. However, a comparison of means and a comparison of growth do clearly support earlier findings by other researchers.
This research concludes that older adults should be a priority in creating new interventions, prevention programs and further research. The researcher recommends an improvement oriented evaluation in this case to "focus on improvement- making things better- rather than rendering summative judgment" (Patton, 2020). Much research should focus on how to improve current intervention and prevention programs to include the older population of adults. Additional research needs to be conducted on mortality and age related complications that come with HIV. Also, since minorities are a concern when considering infection rates, studies that examine both aging and ethnicity with regards to HIV should be encouraged.
This study should serve to inform the social work and medical communities of an aging HIV population that is being underserved. Steps should be taken to address the unique needs that come with aging and HIV. Medical providers need to be aware of these concerns in a time where sexual activity is on the rise among older adults and STD transmission is becoming far more common. Awareness is the first step in intervention and prevention, and the first step in creating a healthier future for everyone.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). HIV Surveillance Report, Vol 22. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
AragonÃ©s-LÃ³pez, C., PÃ©rez-Ãvila, J., Fawzi, M., amp; Castro, A. (2020). Quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy in Cuba: A cross-sectional study of the national population. American Journal Of Public Health, 102(5), 884-892.
Siegel, K., Lekas, H., Schrimshaw, E. W., amp; Brown-Bradley, C. J. (2020). Strategies adopted by late middle-age and older adults with HIV/AIDS to explain their physical symptoms. Psychology amp; Health, 2641-62.
Jacobson, S. A. (2020). HIV/AIDS Interventions in an aging U.S. population. Health amp; Social Work, 36(2), 149-156.
Jeffers, L. A., amp; DiBartolo, M. C. (2020). Raising health care provider awareness of sexually transmitted disease in patients over age 50. MEDSURG Nursing, 20(6), 285-290.
Oursler, K. K., Goulet, J. L., Crystal, S., Justice, A. C., Crothers, K., Butt, A. A., amp; ... Sorkin, J. D. (2020). Association of age and comorbidity with physical function in HIV-Infected and uninfected patients: Results from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. AIDS Patient Care amp; Stds, 25(1), 13-20.
D'Amico, G., Di Biase, G., Janssen, J., amp; Manca, R. (2020). HIV Evolution: A quantification of the effects due to age and to medical progress. Informatica, 22(1), 27-42.
Anstee, S., Price, A., Young, A., Barnard, K., Coates, B., Fraser, S., amp; Moran, R. (2020). Developing a matrix to identify and prioritise research recommendations in HIV Prevention. BMC Public Health, 11(Suppl 4), 381-388.
Sankar, A., Nevedal, A., Neufeld, S., Berry, R., amp; Luborsky, M. (2020). What do we know about older adults and HIV? a review of social and behavioral literature. AIDS Care, 23(10), 1187-1207.
Guaraldi, G., Orlando, G., Zona, S., Menozzi, M., Carli, F., Garlassi, E., amp; ... Palella, F. (2020). premature age-related comorbidities among HIV-Infected persons compared with the general population. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 53(11), 1120-1126.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2020, January 31). HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:
Patton, M. (2020) Utilization Focused Evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.