Bestselling Social Sciences Methodology in 2021
Social Science Methodology: A Unified Framework (Strategies for Social Inquiry)
- Used Book in Good Condition
Social Science Methodology: A Unified Framework (Strategies for Social Inquiry) by Gerring, John 2nd (second) Edition [Paperback(2011)]
The Methodology Of The Social Sciences
Applied Meta-Analysis for Social Science Research (Methodology in the Social Sciences)
Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers in Education and the Social Sciences
- Teachers College Press
Methods of Discovery: Heuristics for the Social Sciences (Contemporary Societies)
Bayesian Statistics for the Social Sciences (Methodology in the Social Sciences)
Measurement Theory and Applications for the Social Sciences (Methodology in the Social Sciences)
Handbook of Survey Methodology for the Social Sciences
- Used Book in Good Condition
Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis, First Edition: A Regression-Based Approach (Methodology in the Social Sciences)
- Guilford Publications
Feminism and Methodology: Social Science Issues
Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, Fourth Edition (Methodology in the Social Sciences)
- Taylor & Francis
Dyadic Data Analysis (Methodology in the Social Sciences)
- Guilford Publications
What is Functionalism?
This article takes a look at the basics of functionalism, the oldest theoretical perspectives of sociology and other social sciences, in a straight forward approach.
Socialization can be defined as the "process of acquiring culture" (O'Neil, par.1). During this process an individual learns the roles and languages of their culture as well as the social norms. Socialization begins at birth, at first common practices are learned, such as, language, appropriate dress and types of food common in one's culture (O'Neil). Familial roles are learned, such as the mother and father's role in one's culture, and that of the extended family and people who an individual commonly associates with. Further into the socialization of an individual, world views are acquired which are complex and will effect how an individual will interact in society (2020). The world view consists of motivations, perceptions and beliefs which an individual acquires during socialization. Two major contributors to the functionalist perspective are Talcott Parsons and Robert K. Milton.
Parsons' has been considered by many as the "best-known American sociologist of the 1950s and 60s" (McClelland5). Structural functionalism is attributed to Parsons, as he viewed society "as a collection of systems within systems" (5). Structural functionalism focuses on the role of norms and values as seen in the process of socialization. An individual will pursue self-interests while the system's interests as a whole will be served as well. The whole world, according to Parsons' was a system of societies. Parsons and like minded functionalists tend to focus on the predictability of an individuals behavior rather than an individuals ability to control his or her own destiny (McClelland).
Robert K. Merton disagreed with Parsons' theory of structural functionalism, and therefore contributed many additional theories involved in functionalism. Unlike Parsons, Merton's system dealt with the social system as a whole. Merton made a distinction between manifest and latent functions. Manifest functions are ones in which may represent motives of individuals in a social system and latent functions are the unrecognized, unpredictable actions of an individual (McClelland). Other important theories purposed by Merton included distinguishing functions which are positive and those that are dysfunctional in society; as well as those that serve neither. Merton also made theories as to the different levels of society, "the specific social units for which regularized patterns of behavior are functional or dysfunctional" (7). Structural alternatives are also contributed to Merton, which explains that the satisfaction of the functional needs in society's social structures is not indispensable (McClelland Merton's perspective was significant because while he believed the system was balanced, he also believed that the system was inherently flawed, since what might function for one could be a dysfunction for another. This is a more realistic and applicable theory than Parsons' structural functionalism. )., par.
While both functionalists' point of views were varied, they both believed society had a function in which could affect the needs of individuals. Functional theories have become less popular since the twentieth century, many theorists consider functionalism outdated because it focuses too much on the causes of actions or influences after they occur, rather than before (McClelland. Parsons' structural functionalist perspective is irrelevant today. It is not realistic to focus on the role of norms and values as seen in the process of socialization as an indicator of an individual's pursuit of self-interests, and think that the social system's interests as a whole will be served as well. )
McClelland, Kent. "Functionalim". Grinnell College. 24 Feb. 2000. 4 Feb. 2020 lt; gt;
O'Neil, David. "Socialization". Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marcos, California. 2020. 4 Feb. 2020