Bestselling Other Foreign Languages in 2020
Fluent Forever: How to Learn Any Language Fast and Never Forget It
Flowers of Evil and Other Works/Les Fleurs du Mal et Oeuvres Choisies : A Dual-Language Book (Dover Foreign Language Study Guides) (English and French Edition)
- Dover Publications
Easy Spanish Step-By-Step
- Easy Spanish Step by Step proves that a solid grounding in grammar basics is the key to mastering a second language.
- Grammatical rules and concepts are clearly explained in order of importance, and more than 300 verbs and key terms are introduced on the basis of frequency.
- Numerous exercises and engaging readings help learners quickly build their Spanish speaking and comprehension prowess.
Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, 4th edition
- Heinle Heinle Publishers
Seven, eight ... Gonna stay up late (Rebekka Franck, Book 4)
Painless English for Speakers of Other Languages (Barron's Painless Series)
Practice Makes Perfect Spanish Verb Tenses, Premium 3rd Edition (Practice Makes Perfect Series)
Practice Makes Perfect Complete Spanish Grammar, Premium Third Edition
Through the Language Glass: Why the World Looks Different in Other Languages
- Picador USA
Wheelock's Latin, 7th Edition (The Wheelock's Latin Series)
In functional grammar, the key terms, such as field, context of situation, and experiential meanings, need to be understood before anything else. Mood is made up of whether the sentence is declarative, imperative, or interrogative.
1. Closely related to the context of culture and situation.
2. A source of making meaning whether experiential, interpersonal and textual.
3. The language system is organized differently at different levels.
In the functional grammar, the key terms, such as field, context of situation, experiential meanings, social purpose, register, text, tenor, context of culture, meta-functions, interpersonal meanings, mode, genre and textual meanings are needed to be understood before anything else. Elements in context of culture consists of social purpose and genres whereas context of situation consists of field, tenor, and mode.
Field - What's going on?
Tenor - The roles and relationships of speaker or listener, and reader and writer.
Mode - The channel; spoken or written, action or reflection.
(Droga and Humphrey, 2002)
The Structure of the Language
Language structure is made up of rank scale and constituency (Droga and Humphrey, 2002).
Rank scale - It is the different levels of language which made up of clauses, clause complexes (clauses joining together), and written or spoken texts (clause complexes joining together).
Constituency - The constituents of a clause are made up of nominal, adverbial, conjunction and preposition groups.
"Experiential meanings are those which relate to what is going on in the world - the field. The part of the grammar which realizes experiential meaning is the transitivity system."(Droga and Humphrey, 2002). Experiential meanings consist of types of processes, participants and circumstances. For example, "By the beginning of the 1900s settlers had cleared the forests of the east coast. In this sentence", "By the beginning of the 1900s" is the circumstances, "settlers" is the participant or the actor, "had cleared" is the process or material and "the forests of the east coast" is the participant or goal.
According to Droga and Humphrey, this system is influenced by tenor and mood. Mood is made up of whether the sentence is declarative, imperative and interrogative. For example, "When did you have your last cigarette?" is an interrogative sentence. Sometimes, sentences are even more complicated, such as the terms mood block and residue. For example, "did you" is called mood block whereas "When" and "have your last cigarette?" are the residue according to Droga and Humphrey (2002). From mood block and residue, there are further other terms such as WH-Adjunct, finite, subject, predicator and complement, for example, "When" is the WH-Adjunct, "did " is the finite, "you" is the subject, "have" is the predicate and "your last cigarette?" is the complement.
There are many, many more to learn. I recommend Language Learning to people who need something to fill up their empty heads.