13 Best New Testament Criticism & Interpretation

List Updated October 2020

Bestselling New Testament Criticism & Interpretation in 2020


The New Testament: A Translation

The New Testament: A Translation
BESTSELLER NO. 1 in 2020

New Testament Criticism and Interpretation

New Testament Criticism and Interpretation
BESTSELLER NO. 2 in 2020

New Testament Interpretation Through Rhetorical Criticism (Studies in Religion)

New Testament Interpretation Through Rhetorical Criticism (Studies in Religion)
BESTSELLER NO. 3 in 2020

The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings

The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings
BESTSELLER NO. 4 in 2020

Rethinking New Testament Textual Criticism

Rethinking New Testament Textual Criticism
BESTSELLER NO. 5 in 2020

The New Testament: Methods and Meanings

The New Testament: Methods and Meanings
BESTSELLER NO. 6 in 2020

The New Testament: A Very Short Introduction

The New Testament: A Very Short Introduction
BESTSELLER NO. 7 in 2020
  • Oxford University Press USA

The New Testament: A Student's Introduction

The New Testament: A Student's Introduction
BESTSELLER NO. 8 in 2020

Cultural Interpretation (Reorienting New Testament criticism)

Cultural Interpretation (Reorienting New Testament criticism)
BESTSELLER NO. 9 in 2020

The Interpretation of the New Testament, 1861-1986

The Interpretation of the New Testament, 1861-1986
BESTSELLER NO. 10 in 2020

Narrative Criticism of the New Testament: An Introduction

Narrative Criticism of the New Testament: An Introduction
BESTSELLER NO. 11 in 2020

The New Testament: An Analytical Approach

The New Testament: An Analytical Approach
BESTSELLER NO. 12 in 2020
  • Used Book in Good Condition

The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings, 4th Edition

The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings, 4th Edition
BESTSELLER NO. 13 in 2020

The Mark of the Beast is Not from the Roman Catholic Church

Some try to use the Old Testament to invalidate the Christian church by showing what Christians don’t do in the scripture and by showing what would be missing. Those that do not follow such legalism are not condemned to receive the mark of the beast.

Revelation 13:16-17 describes how all people would be forced to receive the mark of the beast on their foreheads and on their hands such that they would not be able to buy or sell unless they had the mark. The passage uses the Greek word thērion for the term for "beast," and Titus 1:12 can be seen to use the same Greek term to describe certain people as beasts. 2 Peter 2:8-13 describes bold and arrogant false teachers that follow the corrupt desires of the flesh, despise authority, and heap abuse on angels as these people are described as unreasoning animals that act only out of instinct while reveling in their pleasures while eating with the saints at feasts. One could thus easily reason that those that have the mark of the beast are very distinct for their worship of creation and the world.

In contrast Exodus 13:6-10 shows bread being eaten for seven days without yeast along with a festival to the Lord on the seventh day. According to the same scripture, this was done because of what the Lord had done to bring the Israelites out of Egypt, and the practice of eating the unleavened bread was to be like a sign on the forehead and on the hand to denote that the law of God would be on a person's lips since the Lord had brought the children of Israel out of Egypt. The passage thus shows the Festival of Unleavened Bread to be the mark of the law that was intended to demonstrate the worship that the people had for God as opposed to worship of the world.

Another example of the same mark being used can be seen in Exodus 13:15-16 when the Lord killed the firstborn of everything not atoned for by blood because Pharaoh refused to let the people go. In the passage Israelites are expected to sacrifice the first born male of every womb and to redeem every first born son so that it would be like a sign on the hand and a symbol on the forehead that the Lord brought the Israelites out of Egypt. In such an example what is clear is that everyone was intended to use the mark of the law to demonstrate what God had done in the lives of the people to show commitment to God.

The problem is that Hosea 11:1 demonstrates that out of Egypt God called his Son as Matthew 2:15 can be seen to quote this verse to be fulfilled when Christ was called out of Egypt back to Israel when Herod had died. In fact Revelation 12:13-17, much like the birth of Christ, describes a woman giving birth to a male child, the woman flying away to a place prepared for her, the dragon spewing water out of its mouth, and the dragon going after the rest of God's offspring that keep the commandments and hold to the testimony of Jesus. One can see that the life of Christ and the early Church was being depicted in Revelation 12:13-17 as the spirit that embodied Herod was like the dragon that went after Christ as the holy family sought refuge in Egypt.

Revelation 13:2-7 shows the dragon giving his authority and throne to the beast so that the beast would rule over God's people and even conquer them, and people worshiped the beast for its greatness but it blasphemed God, those that live in heaven, and God's dwelling place. One can see the clear correlation between the dragon that would symbolize King Herod and the beast that would describe the Roman government that was pagan that ruled over the Jews. At this point many would believe that when Revelation 13:11-18 continues with a second beast that would come out of the earth with the authority of the first and would cause people to worship the first beast as it performed great sings and deceived everyone as it caused people to receive the mark of the beast on the forehead and hand, that many would see this second beast to be the Roman Catholic Church that in their view came out of the first beast.

The problem with this view is that despite the great value of the Law of Moses to act as a good sign between God and man on the forehead and hand, the leading Jews in Israel still crucified Christ who was God's Son. In fact in Luke 9:31 Moses and Elijah are seen talking to Christ about his departure just prior to his crucifixion as this departure would be brought to fulfillment at Jerusalem, and the term for departure that was used was the Greek term exodus as this term has been used to describe not only the book of Exodus but the fact that the Jews came out of Egypt to begin with. When Mark 11:21shows a fig tree having been withered because Christ cursed it, the verse shows symbolism of not only Christ coming out of Jerusalem but also the curse that he would bring against it when the temple would be destroyed.

Thus in Matthew 13:33 Christ in contrast to the Feast of Unleavened Bread does not teaches removing yeast as a sign of coming out of Egypt, but instead he teaches that, " The kingdom of heaven is like yeast that a woman took and mixed into about sixty pounds of flour until it worked all through the dough." (NIV) The concept being taught is that of investment of faith and Christ's teachings for increasing fruitfulness, and to such an extent in Matthew 13:31-32 Christ even told the parable of the mustard seed being the smallest seed but yet growing into the largest garden plant. In fact in Luke 13:1-8 Christ teaches people to repent or perish, and he gives the parable of a fig tree being unfruitful and thus being cut down so that it would not waste the soil.

The reason why the Roman Catholic Church cannot be the second beast that delivers the mark of the beast is because they are like the woman that hid yeast in the dough and like the mustard seed that started at the birth of the Church in the book of Acts and grow into the largest garden plant (the largest church). Some would want to use the promises of God concerning the Festival of Unleaded bread, the consecration of the firstborn, and even the Saturday Sabbath to show how they are justified in God's eyes and to condemn the church for the prosperity of its investment because of the advances that it made in the gospel without adherence to the Law of Moses. The problem is that after the parable of the talents is told by Christ and just before he goes into Jerusalem as king beginning in Luke 19:28, the scripture shows Luke 19:26-27 stating, "'I tell you that to everyone who has, more will be given, but as for the one who has nothing, even what they have will be taken away. But those enemies of mine who did not want me to be king over them-bring them here and kill them in front of me.'" (NIV)

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