Bestselling Medical Bibliographies & Indexes in 2020
Self-Experimenters: Sources for Study (Bibliographies and Indexes in Medical Studies)
Making Creativity Accountable: How Successful Advertisers Manage Their Television and Print (Bibliographies and Indexes in Medical)
The History of Cancer: An Annotated Bibliography (Bibliographies and Indexes in Medical Studies Book 3)
Pocket Guide to APA Style
An American Plague: The True and Terrifying Story of the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 (Newbery Honor Book)
The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Musculoskeletal System, Volume 6, Part I - Upper Limb (Netter Green Book Collection)
Clarifying and Furthering Existential Psychotherapy: Theories, Methods, and Practices (Springerbriefs in Psychology)
A Guided Tour of the Collected Works of C. G. Jung
The Zoology Coloring Book
- Collins Reference
A medical bibliography (Garrison and Morton): An annotated check-list of texts illustrating the history of medicine (A Grafton book)
Direction of Time
Medical Histories of Union Generals
TESS GERRITSEN: SERIES READING ORDER & BOOK CHECKLIST: SERIES LIST INCLUDES HER: ROMANTIC THRILLERS, MEDICAL THRILLERS, RIZZOLI & ISLES SERIES & MORE! ... Reading Order & Series Checklists 50)
The Simple Facts of Childbirth
This article is meant merely to inform men and women as to some basic facts about childbirth and planning for parenthood. It is not meant to be a medical reference or provide medical advice.
The process of childbirth (also called labor) can be divided into three stages. The first stage is typically the longest of the three and involves uterine contractions averaging 15 to 20 minutes apart for up to one minute durations. (Santrock, 2020) The purpose of these contractions is to dilate the birth canal opening (or cervix). The intensity of the contractions increases as the labor continues until the cervix is dilated to about 4 inches allowing the baby enough room to move from the uterus into the birth canal. (Santrock) When the baby's head begins to move through the cervix and into the birth canal the second birth stage begins and the time between contractions shortens to within minutes of each other lasting for durations of up to a minute. (Santrock) When the baby has exited its mother's body the third stage (also the shortest stage) of labor begins. It's during this third stage that the placenta, umbilical cord, and remaining membranes are detached and discarded. (Santrock)
There are several methods of delivery for expectant mothers to choose from. The most common are mediated, natural and prepared, and cesarean. (Santrock, 2020) Each mother must decide which one is right for her. If a medicated delivery is chosen, the mother will have three choices of drugs to reduce labor pain: analgesia, anesthesia, and oxytocics. Analgesia drugs are administered to relieve labor pain and include tranquilizers and narcotics such as Demerol. Anesthesia can be used during the first and second stages of the birthing process and can either block the sensation of the baby moving through the birth canal or completely sedate the mother into an unconscious state. Epidurals are a common choice of anesthesia drugs that can be given locally to one area (e.g. numbing the pain in only a specific area such as from the mother's waist down through her legs) to provide relief from labor pain. Last oxytocics, a synthetic hormone, can be administered to induce contractions. Whenever the decision is made to use drugs during the birthing process, it's important for mother's to recognize that there is a wide range of variations in the effects the drugs can have on the fetus. In some cases one drug will have little if any effect on a young fetus whereas the same drug may have a more substantial influence on a different fetus. Drug dosage is a key factor in determining a drug's affect on the fetus. (Santrock) So mothers must be careful when assessing their actual levels of pain during the birthing process being mindful that their requests for drugs could have adverse affects on their fetus.
Mothers also have a variety of child birth strategies from which to choose from. The most common today are natural childbirth, prepared childbirth, and cesarean delivery. (Santrock, 2020) Natural childbirth involves educating the mother about the childbirth process and teaching her various relaxation and breathing techniques to use during the delivery process. Prepared childbirth (commonly known as Lamaze) is similar to natural childbirth but involves using different breathing techniques for each stage of labor. This was my method of choice for the births of both my daughter and son. I found it to be extremely helpful in getting through the stronger contractions I experienced during the second stage of labor. Last, the cesarean delivery method involves a surgical procedure where an incision is made in the mother's abdomen to remove the baby. This method is typically used when there are complications that prevent the baby from moving naturally up the birth canal such as when a baby is in a breech position. (Santrock) A survey conducted in 2001 polled 310 women (each in the final weeks of their third trimester) as to what birthing methods they preferred. Of these women, over 93% preferred a vaginal birth to a C-section (cesarean section) and only 6.4% preferred a C-section with the majority of this group having either experienced delivery complications that prevented a successful vaginal birth or those who were not well informed as to the dangers involved with this type of procedure. (Gamble, 2001)
Santrock, John W. (2020). Life-Span Development (10th ed.) McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Gamble, J. A., Creedy, D.A. (2001). Women's preference for a cesarean section: incidence and associated factors. Retrieved on June 13, 2020 from